Temple Architectural Heritages: Manti

From Wikipedia: The Manti Temple is “Castellated Gothic.”

From the Church website: “A castellated style reflects construction influences of Gothic Revival, French Renaissance Revival, French Second Empire and colonial architecture.”


ChatGPT: What is a castellated architectural style? What are some examples? 

The castellated style, often referred to as “castellation,” is an architectural style characterized by the features and decorative elements commonly associated with medieval castles. This style often imitates the form and appearance of medieval fortifications, even when the structure itself does not serve a defensive purpose.

Key features of the castellated style include:

  1. Battlements: These are parapets (protective walls) with alternating raised and lowered sections, called merlons and crenels, respectively. They originally allowed defenders to fire weapons or throw objects at attackers while being shielded between the merlons.
  2. Turrets: Small towers that protrude from the walls or corners of buildings. In genuine castles, these often had a defensive role, but in the castellated style, they are primarily decorative.
  3. Machicolations: Overhanging sections of a wall or tower with gaps in the floor, originally designed so that defenders could drop objects or pour boiling liquids onto attackers below. In castellated architecture, these are often purely decorative.
  4. Arrowslits: Narrow vertical openings in walls that allowed archers to shoot arrows at attackers while being protected from return fire.
  5. Portcullises: A heavy grilled door that drops or slides to block an entrance, typically found in the main entrance or gate of a castle.
  6. Thick walls and robust towers: Often imitating the defensive structures of genuine medieval castles.

The castellated style emerged during periods of romantic revival of medieval forms, particularly during the Gothic Revival in the 19th century. It was often employed for decorative and symbolic reasons rather than for genuine defense. The style was popular for various building types, including country houses, universities, and even some churches or public buildings. In essence, the castellated style provided a way for architects and builders to evoke the romance and grandeur of the medieval past.

West Point 

ChatGPT: What is a Gothic Revival architectural style? What are some examples? 

Gothic Revival architecture is a style that sought to revive the design elements and aesthetics of Gothic architecture, which was prevalent in Europe from the 12th to the 16th centuries. The Gothic Revival movement emerged in the late 18th century and gained significant popularity in the 19th century, especially in Western Europe and North America.

Key characteristics and features of Gothic Revival architecture include:

  1. Pointed Arches: One of the most recognizable features, these arches were used in windows, doors, and other architectural elements.
  2. Vaulted Ceilings: These are high, arched ceilings, often used in churches to create a sense of grandeur.
  3. Flying Buttresses: External, arched supports that counteract the outward thrust of the vaulted ceilings, most prominently seen in Gothic cathedrals.
  4. Decorative Tracery: Ornamental stonework, often seen in windows, especially the large rose windows of cathedrals.
  5. Tall, Slender Spires: Pointed structures atop towers or pinnacles.
  6. Ornate Gargoyles and Grotesques: Stone sculptures serving as waterspouts or just decorative elements.
  7. Lancet Windows: Tall, narrow windows with a pointed arch at the top.
  8. Stained Glass Windows: Often used in churches, these windows depict religious scenes or patterns.
  9. Polychromy: Use of different colors or types of stone on the exterior for decorative effect.

Palace of Westminster, Big Ben, and Westminster Bridge as seen from the south bank of the River Thames.

ChatGPT: What is a French Revival architectural style? What are some examples? 

The term “French Revival” is a broad descriptor that can encompass several architectural styles that draw inspiration from various periods of French architecture. Most often, when people refer to “French Revival” in the context of residential or smaller-scale architecture, they are speaking about the “French Provincial” or “French Country” styles. For grander structures, “Beaux-Arts” and “Châteauesque” are other French-inspired styles. Let’s break them down:

  1. French Provincial/French Country:
    • Inspired by the rural manor homes of the French countryside, especially those in regions like Normandy and Provence.
    • Features include steep pitched roofs, brick or stone facades, and half-timbering.
    • Symmetry is often a hallmark, with central doorways and evenly spaced windows.
  2. Beaux-Arts:
    • Originated from the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in the 19th century.
    • Characterized by grandiosity, symmetry, and lavish ornamentation.
    • Common features include classical details, large arches, and balustrades.
    • Prominent in the U.S. during the late 19th and early 20th centuries for public buildings, train stations, and cultural institutions.
  3. Châteauesque:
    • Inspired by the grand châteaux of the Loire Valley in France.
    • Features include steeply pitched roofs, spires, tall decorative chimneys, and elaborate stone ornamentation.
    • Often associated with the Gilded Age mansions in the U.S.

Châteaux of the Loire Valley

ChatGPT: What is the French Second Empire style? What are some examples? 

The French Second Empire style, also simply known as the Second Empire style, is an architectural style that originated in France during the reign of Napoleon III (1852-1870), the Second French Empire period. This style quickly spread to other parts of Europe and to North America, particularly during the latter half of the 19th century.

Key Characteristics of French Second Empire Style:

  1. Mansard Roof: The most distinctive feature, it’s a four-sided gambrel-style hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its sides with the lower slope being steeper, often punctuated with dormer windows.
  2. Rich Ornamentation: Elaborate and decorative details around eaves, windows, and towers.
  3. Symmetry: Facades are typically balanced and symmetrical.
  4. Towers and Quoins: Some Second Empire buildings feature central or side towers. Quoins (decorative corner blocks) are sometimes used for a contrasting effect.
  5. High Ceilings and Large Windows: This style often features tall, narrow windows.
  6. Decorative Iron Cresting: Often found atop the roof.
  7. Balustrades: These are common around the roof and other parts of the structure.

Philadelphia City Hall

ChatGPT: What is the colonial architectural style? 

The term “Colonial architecture” broadly refers to the architectural styles that emerged in the North American colonies of European powers, particularly during the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries. As these colonies were established by different European countries, the architecture often reflects the styles and traditions of the colonizing nation, modified to suit local materials, climate, and conditions.