Rankings, Money, and BYU

byuMoney magazine has just released a new ranking of U.S. universities that has received a bit of attention. BYU does quite well, landing in ninth place overall, just behind Stanford, Harvard, Harvey Mudd, and Cooper Union. As BYU is a topic that seems to attract more than its share of angst and acrimony, it’s nice to see some evidence that it’s succeeding in its mission.

The criteria and methodology used by Money are those that will warm an accountant’s heart, being based on data, graduate earnings, and value-added outcomes rather than reputation. The authors attempted to factor in that schools serve different types of students, and that students pursue different kinds of careers. Charging wealthy, well-prepared students top dollar for business degrees so that they can go on to high-flying careers in finance is not supposed to be automatically rewarded more than educating low-income students and setting them on the path to middle-class careers without leaving them drowning in debt. The unusual mix of schools that show up in the Money top ten suggest that the authors have only partially succeeded; they are evenly split between elite universities who have long sent grads on to high-paying careers, STEM-focused schools like MIT and Harvey Mudd, and small (or even tiny) schools with a narrow academic focus. And then there’s BYU.

Besides being a Mormon school, BYU stands out in a few ways. It’s one of the least expensive schools, both in terms of net price and its graduates’ average debt. Among the top ten, BYU also stands out for its sheer size: It enrolls as many students as the all of the schools ahead of it in the rankings combined. Larger schools don’t appear until #24 and #28 (Texas A&M and the University of Florida, respectively), suggesting that BYU is something like the flagship state university of Deseret, more comparable to a large public university than to other private religious schools.

Rankings, of course, are much like elections: Pick a desired outcome, and someone can find a rankings system that will return the desired result. BYU does well on the Money rankings because its institutional priorities are a fairly good match for the authors’ criteria, and BYU has been consistent in pursuing those institutional priorities. If you read through the Money authors’ methodology, you can see where BYU likely did better or worse than other schools.

Quality of Education. The Money rankings use several different proxies here. Graduation rates (weighted 50%) are probably a wash for BYU due to many students taking time out for missionary service. (The study did take well-established work-study programs into account, but it’s not clear if students interrupting their education for 18 or 24 months of missionary service were treated the same way. It will be interesting if the newly lowered missionary age will eventually lead to more students starting college after their missions rather than interrupting their educations, leading to higher 4- and 6-year completion rates for BYU.) On the other hand, the average ACT/SAT score of incoming BYU freshmen (15%) is quite respectable. BYU’s student/faculty ratio (10%) isn’t exceptional, but BYU may score well for “quality of professors” (5%, based on non-easiness, non-hotness data supplied by Ratemyprofessors.com; the highest-scoring RMP faculty member in the nation was at BYU until a few years ago). One area where BYU does do quite well is yield (20%), the percentage of accepted students who actually enroll in classes, as many BYU applicants are highly motivated to attend BYU as their first choice. (The study authors admit that these are indirect and imperfect measures. For student/faculty ratios, I would prefer surveys to consider only tenure-track rather than contingent or part-time faculty.) While quality of education is difficult to measure, I would expect that the average BYU academic program is little different from the average program among, say, the USN&WR top 100 national universities.

Affordability. BYU is incredibly inexpensive compared to other universities, and it probably owes much of its overall success to this category. A longer time to degree may increase the net price (weighted 40%) somewhat, depending on how missions are being treated. The figure of $82,000 for four or even five years of tuition plus room and board in Provo strikes me as somewhat high; it would be interesting to see the full data table used by the Money authors. BYU also does well on measures of student or parental debt (40% combined) and debt default rates (20%).

Outcomes. I expect that BYU did similarly to schools with students of similar academic backgrounds in this category, which is based on how well the career services center is staffed (10%) and, for the bulk of the weighting, on various ways of looking at early- and mid-career income data from PayScale.com. One drawback BYU faces is geography. BYU grads have the lowest salaries among the top ten schools, but BYU is also the only school not located in California or on the east coast. As the authors admit, they did not factor in cost-of-living data, so graduates who find high-paying jobs in expensive areas (like the coasts) may not actually being doing as well as lower-earning graduates in cheaper areas (like Santaquin). The Money rankings also ignore students who go on to graduate and professional programs rather than beginning careers immediately after graduation, and the effect of that omission on BYU is hard to estimate.

As a way to sell magazines, rankings are highly effective. As conveyors of useful information, they depend on the soundness of their data and methodology, and one could spend a long time criticizing both for the Money rankings. The future of college rankings, however, will probably look a lot like what appears in Money: data-driven, focused on value added outcomes, worried more about net tuition price and student debt than about markers of academic prestige. A large state university offering a broad palette of academic programs might learn something useful by selecting BYU as a peer and taking a look at what it’s doing well.

11 comments for “Rankings, Money, and BYU

  1. queuno
    July 28, 2014 at 5:55 pm

    I’d say it’s all about as useful as fantasy football, except BYU doesn’t care about football.

  2. Kristine
    July 28, 2014 at 9:33 pm

    Hugh Nibley’s ghost is crying…

  3. Mark B.
    July 28, 2014 at 9:44 pm

    So too are the citizens of Santaquin. It’s a small town, but there are those that love it. (With apologies to Daniel Webster.)

  4. July 28, 2014 at 10:12 pm

    Queuno, maybe so, except it’s instructive to see where people will go for data when data are inherently hard to come by. The Money rankings are probably a good preview of the kind of university rankings that we can expect to see more of, and soon.

    Kristine, there’s nothing wrong with careful stewardship. Someone will find a way to account for personal growth and broadening of spirit in higher education rankings, right. Right?

    Mark, my apologies to the fine citizens of Santaquin for the typo, now fixed.

  5. queuno
    July 28, 2014 at 10:17 pm

    My daughter is a senior this year and in talking to other parents and friends, we haven’t found a single one influenced by rankings like this. This isn’t even “data”, as it relates to programs or quality.

  6. rameumptom
    July 29, 2014 at 1:58 pm

    I have a hard time sending my tithing to subsidize wealthy Mormons attending BYU. Why not just have the Church give out scholarships with the money, whether one attends BYU or some other school, based on actual need?

  7. Martin
    July 29, 2014 at 2:40 pm

    Rameumptom, I suspect the church’s objective isn’t so much to subsidize students’ educations as it is to perpetuate the church.

  8. Old Man
    July 29, 2014 at 11:03 pm


    Is the tithing yours to send? As a BYU grad who struggled financially getting through, I was happy for the church’s support that kept tuition reasonable.

    You do have an excellent idea in starting another version of the Perpetual Education Fund… Why not start a scholarship fund for LDS students with low incomes who attend state universities and technical programs? I would be thrilled to donate to such a fund.

  9. rl
    August 1, 2014 at 3:32 pm

    I’m not sure the Church wants to totally replace effective US systems that already exist like community colleges, state colleges, the Army, etc. that help get people educated that normally wouldn’t have the chance.

    Cheap college education isnt a universal benifit for LDS members, but it is thereare multiple opportunities if you can get into it (BYU) or want to move to Idahoe (BYUI). Of course honor codes, faithfullness, etc are encouraged. The BYUI pathway program is a great niche too.

    I guess members could set up scholarship with state and private schools for Mormons, nothing is stoping members from doing this.

    Is BYU a cost center or an earning center? It gets subsidized but I would assume most students later make up for the investment in tithing and Church service. It seems like a worthy investment.

    I like the positive tone of this post. The Church is doing great things with their education, eben though its not perfect for everyone.

  10. Ryan
    August 1, 2014 at 3:39 pm

    Sorry for the Typos. Here is an example of a LDS centric scholarship at the UofU school of Social Work:

    “LDS Family Services Scholarship
    LDS Family Services is a preeminent, global, mental health and children’s services agency providing consultation, community resource development, and adoptions services. In supporting this annual scholarship for an international student at the College, LDS Family Services hopes to build the international capacity of mental health providers available to Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints leaders and Church members throughout the world, particularly in areas where the Church is growing and in need of additional support. Preference will be given to MSW students; applicants must be members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Click here for the additional scholarship form required for this award application. ”


    Members could set up general scholarships in any major or field and stipulate church membership.

  11. Half Canadian
    August 5, 2014 at 6:57 pm

    In regards to the graduation rates, if this was drawn from Dept of Education data (IPEDS), then it will exclude those students who met one of the following criteria after enrollment:

    1) Death
    2) Religious mission (key here)
    3) Military service
    4) Foreign service (peace corps, etc.)
    5) Permanent disability

    All of the public schools in Utah track missions to some degree with the enrollment cohorts (don’t ask), and these factor into the graduation rates.

    Alternatively, an organization called The National Clearinghouse released graduation rates based on an alternate method (no exclusions), and Utah has the lowest graduation rate in the country.

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